Literature Review: The Cost of Having High School Dropouts in Texas The problem of high school dropouts in Texas is very urgent and important. Despite the fact that the rates have improved for now, the situation still remains urgent and unresolved. For example, the dropout rates in Texas have reduced since 1972 from 6.1 percent to 3.5 percent in 2008 (Chapman, Laird, & Ramani, 2010). During 2011-2012, the dropout rate in Texas was 2.5 percent (Stark & Noel, 2015). The importance of gathering these rates from both classical and contemporary perspectives is explained by the high cost of high school dropouts. The literature analysis will focus specifically on Texas. Thus, the high school dropouts in Texas negatively influence the economics of Texas, since the state does not receive the taxes it would get in case students graduated from high schools. Alvarez et al. (2009) have conducted a research, which validity and reliability is guaranteed by Texas Education Agency, which results have been used for conducting the research. Moreover, Alvarez et al. (2009) have observed the dropout results in the state for two years to assure reliability of the study. Having focused on the analysis of the costs of dropouts, the economic implications of the dropout rate were considered, such as probability of employment, total hours, hourly wage, and welfare received basing on 2000 Census. Having checked the research results of Alvarez et al. (2009), it can be concluded that the state potential loss of earned income in the state comprises about $4,935 annually on one dropout as a weighted average. The study has indicated the lower bound present value at the level of $4,978 million and upper bound present value at the level of $9,028. The cost to educate dropouts in 2009 comprised $625 million (the lover bound) and $1,137 million (the upper bound). Therefore, the study has confirmed that the state losses are significant and offered some particular strategies in reducing the level dropouts. Creusere, Fletcher, Klepfer, and Norman (2015) have conducted another research, however, they referred to the problem of education and offered working places. Thus, according to the findings, only 14% of working places will be offered to high school dropouts. In comparison, 24% of jobs will be offered to high school graduates and 26% of jobs will be provided for college graduates. Thus, according to Creusere, Fletcher, Klepfer, and Norman, (2015), more than half of jobs in Texas will require postsecondary education by 2020. Schneider and Yin (2011) have made a very interesting research, having based it on the following statement, the income losses incurred by students not earning a college degree are estimated as the difference between the median earnings for young adults with some college but no degree, and the median earnings for young adults with a bachelor s degree (p. 4). This very statement was supported in this research by the following numbers. In Texas income loss comprised $341 annually for the cohort of full-time students who started college in fall 2002 but did not graduate within six year (Schneider & Yin, 2011, p. 5). This data is significant as in case of dropping from the high school, students do not only lose money when earning less, but increase the costs for the country on their keeping, which is a result of significant losses in taxes. As a result, the further analysis of the problem is required with understanding which other costs may be included in this list. References Alvarez, R. et al. (2009). The ABCD s of Texas education: Assessing the benefits and costs of reducing the dropout rate. The Bush School of Government & Public Service. Retrieved from http://bush.tamu.edu/research/capstones/mpsa/projects/2009/TheABCDsExecutiveSummary.pdf Chapman, C., Laird, J., & Ramani, A. K. (2010). Trends in high school dropout and completion rates in the United States: 1972 2008. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011012.pdf Creusere, M., Fletcher, C., Klepfer, K., & Norman, P. (2015). State of student aid and higher education in Texas. TG Research and Analytical Services. Retrieved from https://www.tgslc.org/pdf/SOSA.pdf Schneider, M., & Yin, L. M. (2011). The high cost of low graduation rates: How much does dropping out of college really cost? American Institutes for research. Retrieved from http://www.air.org/sites/default/files/downloads/report/AIR_High_Cost_of_Low_Graduation_Aug2011_0.pdf Stark, P., & Noel, A. (2015). Trends in high school dropout and completion rates in the United States: 1972-2012 (NCSE 2015-015). Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics.
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