Burial mounds were especially common during the Middle Woodland period (c.100 B.C.”?A.D. 400), while temple mounds predominated during the Mississippian period (after A.D. 1000). The greatest concentrations of mounds are found in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys. The term “Mound Builders” arose when the origin of the monuments was considered mysterious, most European Americans assuming that the Native Americans were too uncivilized for this accomplishment. The Adena culture began near the Ohio River Valley area during the technological period of about 3000 BP. They lasted for a relatively short period of time, from 1000 B.C. to around 1 A.D. This culture is most famous for its practice of burying its dead in large burial mounds and its people have often been termed the “Mound Builders”. Most of what we know about this culture comes from examining what was buried with the dead. The culture’s main identifying features, the burial mounds, most are conical in shape and vary greatly in size. Many tools have also been found within the burial mounds. Stone hoes, flint blades, projectile points, and stone scrapers are among the most common items found. The typical projectile point was long, straight, and did not differ from the archaic prototype by that much. Axes, or Celts, were also found within the burial complexes. Shells that were found within the burial complex also served a specific function. They used the shells as spoons and ornamental objects. Bone and antler were used to make combs, beads, and gargets. A few copper axes have been found, but most copper artifacts were for ornamental purposes. Tobacco pipes have also been found within the gravesites. The pottery made by the Adena peoples was not buried with the dead. It was made form the grit of crushed limestone, and somewhat plain looking. Designs found on the pottery were usually made from fabric, although some do have a nestled diamond shape pressed in to them. The di…
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