The texts of Old Testament Parallels and Genesis describe unique theories regarding the creation of the world and universe. These etiologies of creation have many differences, but have similar details as well. By reading Egyptian and Mesopotamian etiologies and those in Genesis, one will notice that though similar, there are many differences that exist. These differences are partly due to the fact that these common etiologies were added to by cultures to make them unique. In the Egyptian creation stories begin with hymns celebrating Ptah, the divine patron of Memphis and the creator of the world. This story is set as The Ennead, and is made up of Egypt’s nine most important and divine people, and meets in an effort to make Egypt a single state and designate its leader. At the beginning of the story, it states that the Ptah is the creator of the members of the Ennead, and also guides the thoughts of the living through his own thoughts. He also governs the living, praising the innocent and punishing the guilty. After he has finished creating, Ptah, like the Christian God, rests. In “Hymn to Ptah”, Ptah is praised and honored because his way of creation, that being only thoughts and words, was superior to Atum, who had to create using his hands and semen. In addition to the story of Ptah, there is another creation story, “Hymn to Ra”. Ra is honored by the Egyptian people as their creator, as well as who accompanies them from one life to the next. This hymn gives a narration by Ra himself, as he creates the earth and heavens. He begins while there is nothing in existence, and then by exhaling Shu (the wind), and spitting Teftnut (the rain), and using his tears, he creates the earth, and all of it’s inhabitants. Teftnut and Ra had offspring, who had offspring, etc., thus creating the people of Egypt. In Old Testament Parallels, the Mesopotamian etiology is described as a divine assembly that is born out of darkne…
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